• Benchmarking is done using the bombardier benchmarking tool.

  • Benchmarks are run on a dedicated machine, with a base Debian 11 installation.

  • Each framework is contained within its own docker container, running on a dedicated CPU core (using the cset shield command and the --cpuset-cpus option for docker)

  • Tests for the frameworks are written to make them as comparable as possible while completing the same tasks (you can see them here)

  • Each application is run using uvicorn with one worker and uvloop

  • Test data has been randomly generated and is being imported from a shared module

  • All frameworks are used with their “stock” configuration, i.e. without applying any additional optimizations. All tests have been written according to the respective official documentation, applying the practices shown there



If a result is missing for a specific framework that means either

  • The framework does not support this functionality (this will be mentioned in the test description)

  • More than 0.1% of responses were dropped


Serializing a dictionary into JSON




Because all frameworks are being used in their “stock” configuration, Litestar will run the data through msgspec and FastAPI through Pydantic


Serializing Pydantic models and dataclasses into JSON

RPS serializing Pydantic models and dataclasses into JSON

RPS serializing Pydantic models and dataclasses into JSON#


RPS files

RPS files#


Synchronous file responses are not / only partially supported for Sanic and Quart

Path and query parameter handling#

All responses return “No Content”

  • No params: No path parameters

  • Path params: Single path parameter, coerced into an integer

  • Query params: Single query parameter, coerced into an integer

  • Mixed params: A path and a query parameters, coerced into integers

RPS path and query parameters

RPS path and query parameters#

Dependency injection#

  • Resolving 3 nested synchronous dependencies

  • Resolving 3 nested asynchronous dependencies (only supported by Litestar and FastAPI)

  • Resolving 3 nested synchronous, and 3 nested asynchronous dependencies (only supported by Litestar and FastAPI)

RPS Dependency injection

RPS Dependency injection#


Dependency injection is not supported by Starlette.


RPS Plaintext

RPS Plaintext#

Interpreting the results#

An interpretation of these results should be approached with caution, as is the case for nearly all benchmarks. A high score in a test does not necessarily translate to high performance of your application and your use case. For almost any test you can probably write an app that performs better or worse at a comparable task in your scenario.

While trying to design the tests in a way that simulate somewhat realistic scenarios, they can never give an exact representation of how a real world application behaves and performs, where, aside from the workload, many other factors come into play. These tests were mainly written to be used internally for Litestar development, to help us locate and track performance regressions and improvements.